Who can block the operation of a domain?

3 structures are involved in the operation of the domains:
1. ICANN.
2. Domain zone administrator.
3. Domain registrars.


At any level, a domain can be blocked (removed from delegation). Domain registrars are governed by the laws of the country in which they are resident, as well as the rules and requirements imposed by ICANN. Most often, it is the registrars who remove domains from delegation in the event of a justified request from law enforcement agencies of the country or other persons. However, if the registrar is geographically located in another country, he may ignore such requests.


The domain zone administrator is also guided by the laws of the country and the requirements of ICANN, but cannot be territorially located "somewhere" outside the country in which he is a resident, therefore he cannot ignore the reasonable requirements of the country's law enforcement agencies and other persons. However, due to differences in the legislation of different countries, what is prohibited and illegal in one country may be allowed and legal in another. That is why it is important to choose a domain zone for your project, taking into account the legislation of the country of the domain zone administrator.
You can get acquainted with the administrators of domain zones at the link: http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db



Any domain, theoretically, can be blocked, or seized and transferred to another person (for example, by court order) by ICANN (an American company). All domain registrars are required to obtain ICANN accreditation, so ICANN usually does not block itself, but puts pressure on registrars under the threat of deprivation / non-renewal of accreditation. For this reason, any registrar that has a reputation for being bulletproof may at any time cease to be so in some niches.

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